Literature references
    While hardly known to the public outside its native range, interest of
    the scientific community in Inula viscosa has produced over 50 studies
    in recent years.  Abstracts of some of these publications dealing with
    the biological activity of Inula viscosa extracts are referenced below:

    1) Induction of G(2)/M arrest and apoptosis by sesquiterpene lactones in human melanoma cell lines

    .Rozenblat S, Grossman S, Bergman M, Gottlieb H, Cohen Y, Dovrat S.
    The Mina & Everard Goodman Faculty of Life Sciences, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 52900, Israel.

    Malignant melanoma is a highly aggressive tumor which frequently resists chemotherapy, therefore, the
    search for new agents for its treatment is of great importance. In this study, we purified the sesquiterpene
    lactones (SLs), Tomentosin and Inuviscolide from Inula viscosa (Compositae) leaves and studied their
    anti-cancer potency against human melanoma cell lines in order to develop new agents for melanoma
    treatment. SLs inhibited the proliferation of three human melanoma cell lines: SK-28, 624mel and
    1363mel in a dose-dependent manner. We further investigated SLs mechanism of action using SK-28 as
    a representative cell line model. SLs caused cell-cycle arrest at G(2)/M, accompanied by the appearance
    of a sub-G0 fraction, indicative of apoptotic cell death. Induction of apoptosis was further confirmed by
    changes in membrane phospholipids, changes in mitochondrial membrane potential (DeltaPsi) and by
    detection of Caspase-3 activity. Rapid inhibitory phosphorylation of Cdc2 (Thr14 and Tyr15) was seen
    early after treatment, followed by a later decrease in the expression level of both Cyclin b1 and Cdc2.
    Induction of p53 and p21(waf1) proteins and phosphorylation of p53 at Ser15 were also detected early
    after treatment. The anti-apoptotic proteins, p65 subunit of nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB), and
    Survivin were reduced in a dose-dependent manner. Taken together, these changes partially explain the
    ability of the SLs to induce G(2)/M arrest and apoptosis. Induction of apoptosis by Tomentosin and
    Inuviscolide in human aggressive melanoma cell lines has high pharmacological value and implies that
    SLs might be developed as new agents for melanoma treatment.

    PMID: 17919456 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

    2) Inhibition of pro-inflammatory enzymes by inuviscolide, a sesquiterpene lactone from Inula viscosa.
    Máñez S, Hernández V, Giner RM, Ríos JL, Recio Mdel C.

    Departament de Farmacologia, Facultat de Farmàcia, Universitat de València, Avinguda Vicent Andrés
    Estellés s/n, 46100 Burjassot, Spain. manez@uv.es

    This work concerns the pharmacological activity of inuviscolide, a sesquiterpenoid from Inula viscosa. It
    exerts inhibitory effects on elastase, cyclooxygenase 1 and secretory phospholipase A(2). Furthermore, it
    reduces the skin leukocyte infiltration in a murine model of dermatitis induced by repeated application of
    12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate.

    PMID: 17490829 [PubMed - in process


    3) Effects of naturally occurring dihydroflavonols from Inula viscosa on inflammation and enzymes
    involved in the arachidonic acid metabolism.

    Hernández V, Recio MC, Máñez S, Giner RM, Ríos JL.
    Departament de Farmacologia, Facultat de Farmacia, Universitat de València, Av. Vicent Andrés Estellés
    s/n. 46100 Burjassot, Spain.

    The anti-inflammatory properties of three flavanones isolated from Inula viscosa, sakuranetin, 7-O-
    methylaromadendrin, and 3-acetyl-7-O-methylaromadendrin, have been tested both in vitro and in vivo.
    Acute inflammation in vivo was induced by means of topical application of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-
    acetate (TPA) to mouse ears or by subcutaneous injection of phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) into mouse
    paws. The test compounds were evaluated in vitro for their effect on both the metabolism of arachidonic
    acid and on the release and/or activity of enzymes involved in the inflammatory response such as
    elastase, myeloperoxidase (MPO), and protein kinase C (PKC). The most active compounds in vivo
    against PLA(2)-induced paw oedema were 7-O-methylaromadendrin (ED(50)=8 mg/kg) and sakuranetin
    (ED(50)=18 mg/kg). In contrast, the most potent compound against TPA-induced ear oedema was 3-
    acetyl-7-O-methylaromadendrin (ED(50)=185 microg/ear), followed by sakuranetin (ED(50)=205
    microg/ear). In vitro, the latter compound was the most potent inhibitor of leukotriene (LT) B(4) production
    by peritoneal rat neutrophils (IC(50)=9 microM) and it was also the only compound that directly inhibited
    the activity of 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX). 3-Acetyl-7-O-methylaromadendrin also inhibited LTB(4) production
    (IC(50)=15 microM), but had no effect on 5-LOX activity. The only flavanone that inhibited the secretory
    PLA(2) activity in vitro was 7-O-methylaromadendrin. This finding may partly explain the anti-inflammatory
    effect observed in vivo, although other mechanisms such as the inhibition of histamine release by mast
    cells may also be implicated. Sakuranetin at 100 microM was found to inhibit elastase release, although
    this result is partly due to direct inhibition of the enzyme itself. At the same concentration, 7-O-
    methylaromadendrin only affected the enzyme release. Finally, none of the flavanones exhibited any
    effect on MPO or PKC activities. Taken together, these findings indicate that sakuranetin may be a
    selective inhibitor of 5-LOX.

    PMID: 17658557 [PubMed - in process]

    4) A mechanistic approach to the in vivo anti-inflammatory activity of
    sesquiterpenoid compounds isolated from Inula viscosa.

    Planta Med  2001 Nov;67(8):726-31
    Hernandez V, del Carmen Recio M, Manez S, Prieto JM, Giner RM, Rios JL.

    Departament de Farmacologia, Facultat de Farmacia, Universitat de Valencia,
    Spain.

    Abstract;
    The present study was designed to examine the anti-inflammatory activity of the
    sesquiterpenoids ilicic acid and inuviscolide, isolated from Inula viscosa, on
    cell degranulation, leukotriene biosynthesis, neurogenic drive and
    glucocorticoid-like interactions. Swiss female mice were used to measure the ear
    oedema induced by phorbol esters or ethyl phenylpropiolate (EPP), and the paw
    oedema induced by phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) or serotonin. Drug treatment
    consisted of one topically-applied dose in the ear models and a subcutaneous or
    intraperitoneal injection in the paw models. Quantitative analysis of
    leukotriene B(4) (LTB(4)) formation was performed on rat peritoneal neutrophils
    by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The lactone inuviscolide
    reduced the PLA(2)-induced oedema (ID(50): 98 micromol/kg). The effect on
    serotonin-induced oedema was not changed by modifiers of the glucocorticoid
    response. Ilicic acid showed minor in vivo effects, but was slightly more potent
    than inuviscolide on the 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA) acute oedema
    test (ID(50): 0.650 micromol per ear). Inuviscolide reduced LTB(4) generation in
    intact cells, with an IC(50) value of 94 microM. On the basis of the reported
    results, inuviscolide is the main anti-inflammatory sesquiterpenoid from Inula
    viscosa, and may act by interfering with leukotriene synthesis and
    PLA(2)-induced mastocyte release of inflammatory mediators.

    PMID: 11731914 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


    5) Fungistatic activity of a sesquiterpene lactone (tomentosin) isolated from
    fresh Inula viscosa (Asteraceae) flowers from the Puglia region]
    Parassitologia  2001 Sep;43(3):117-21

    [Article in Italian]
    Cafarchia C, De Laurentis N, Milillo MA, Losacco V, Puccini V.

    Dipartimento di Sanita e Benessere degli Animali, Facolta di Medicina
    Veterinaria, Valenzano, Bari, Italia.

    Abstract;
    A sesquiterpene lactone, tomentosin, has been isolated and identified form Inula
    viscosa Ait (Asteraceae) flowers. The molecule, at 1 mg/ml concentration, showed
    to be active in vitro against Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum and
    Trichophyton mentagrophytes.

    PMID: 11921538 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


    6) Antioxidant activity of anti-inflammatory plant extracts.
    Life Sci  2002 Jan 18;70(9):1023-33

    Schinella GR, Tournier HA, Prieto JM, Mordujovich D, Rios JL.

    Facultad de Ciencias Medicas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Argentina.

    Abstract;
    The antioxidant properties of twenty medical herbs used in the traditional
    Mediterranean and Chinese medicine were studied. Extracts from Forsythia
    suspensa, Helichrysum italicum, Scrophularia auriculata, Inula viscosa, Coptis
    chinensis, Poria cocos and Scutellaria baicalensis had previously shown
    anti-inflammatory activity in different experimental models. Using free
    radical-generating systems H. italicum. I. viscosa and F. suspensa protected
    against enzymatic and non-enzymatic lipid peroxidation in model membranes and
    also showed scavenging property on the superoxide radical. All extracts were
    assayed at a concentration of 100 microg/ml. Most of the extracts were weak
    scavengers of the hydroxyl radical and C. chinensis and P. cocos exhibited the
    highest scavenging activity. Although S. baicalensis inhibited the lipid
    peroxidation in rat liver microsomes and red blood cells, the extract showed
    inhibitory actions on aminopyrine N-demethylase and xanthine oxidase activities
    as well as an pro-oxidant effect observed in the Fe3+-EDTA-H2O2 system. The
    results of the present work suggest that the anti-inflammatory activities of the
    same extracts could be explained, at least in part, by their antioxidant
    properties.

    PMID: 11860151 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

    7) Effect of Inula viscosa extract on chitin synthesis in dermatophytes and Candida albicans.
    J Ethnopharmacol  2000 Aug;71(3):479-82
    J Ethnopharmacol  2001 Sep;77(1):117-21

    Maoz M, Neeman I.  Department of Food Engineering and Biotechnology, Technion, 32000, Haifa,  Israel.

    Abstract;
    An antimycotic effect of an extract from Inula viscosa leaves was demonstrated
    affecting chitin synthesis in dermatophytes and Candida albicans. The
    antimycotic effect was compared to the effect caused by miconazole nitrate--an
    antifungal drug. The inhibition effect on chitin synthesis was not correlated to
    the extent of growth inhibition caused by the antifungal agents: both miconazole
    nitrate and the I. viscosa extract inhibited the growth of dermatophytes and C.
    albicans. Miconazole nitrate did not affect chitin synthesis--except for M.
    canis--whereas I. viscosa extract caused a significant decline in chitin
    content.

    PMID: 10940586 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

    8)  Research on antifungal activity of flowers and leaves of Inula viscosa
    (Asteraceae)]
    Parassitologia  1999 Dec;41(4):579-82  [Article in Italian]

    Cafarchia C, De Laurentis N, Milillo MA, Losacco V, Puccini V.
    Dipartimento di Sanita e Benessere degli Animali, Facolta di Medicina
    Veterinaria, Universita di Bari, Italia.

    Abstract;
    The authors carried out a preliminary screening about the in vitro antifungal
    activity of some extracts of flowers and leaves of Inula viscosa obtained with
    different solvents. All extracts showed antifungal activity against
    dermatophytes and Candida species. The best results were obtained with Inula
    viscosa flowers extracts. These results may be ascribed to the different
    flavonoids and different flavonoid concentrations in our samples.

    PMID: 10870565 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

    9) Antifungal activity of plant extracts against dermatophytes.
    Mycoses  1999;42(11-12):665-72
    Ali-Shtayeh MS, Abu Ghdeib SI.

    Department of Biological Sciences, An-Najah National University, Nablus,
    Palestine.

    Abstract;
    The aqueous extracts (15 micrograms ml-1 medium) of 22 plants used in folkloric
    medicine in Palestine were investigated for their antifungal activity and
    minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) against nine isolates of Microsporum
    canis, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton violaceum. The extract of
    the different plant species reduced colony growth of the three dermatophytes by
    36 to 100% compared with the control treatment. Antimycotic activity of the
    extract against the three dermatophytes varied significantly (P < 0.05) between
    test plants. Extracts of Capparis spinosa and Juglans regia completely prevented
    growth of M. canis and T. violaceum. The most active extracts (90-100%
    inhibition) were those of Anagallis arvensis, C. spinosa, J. regia, Pistacia
    lentiscus and Ruta chalapensis against M. canis; Inula viscosa, J. regia and P.
    lentiscus against T. mentagrophytes; and Asphodelus luteus, A. arvensis, C.
    spinosa, Clematis cirrhosa, I. viscosa, J. regia, P. lentiscus, Plumbago
    europea, Ruscus aculeatus, Retema raetam and Salvia fruticosa against T.
    violaceum. The MICs of these most active plants ranged from 0.6 to 40 micrograms
    ml-1. The three dermatophytes differed significantly with regard to their
    susceptibility to plant extracts. Trichophyton violaceum was the most
    susceptible being completely inhibited by 50% of the extracts followed by M.
    canis and T. mentagrophytes which were completely inhibited by only 23 and 14%
    of the extracts, respectively.

    PMID: 10680445 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

    10) A glycosyl analogue of diacylglycerol and other anti inflammatory constituents
    from Inula viscosa.
    J Nat Prod  1999 Apr;62(4):601-4

    Manez S, Recio MC, Gil I, Gomez C, Giner RM, Waterman PG, Rios JL.
    Departament de Farmacologia, Facultat de Farmacia, Universitat de Valencia, Av.
    V. Andres Estelles s/n, 46100 Burjassot, Valencia, Spain.

    Abstract;
    Some extracts from Inula viscosa were examined for acute anti inflammatory
    activity in vivo. Three flavonoids: rhamnocitrin (1), 7-O-methylaromadendrin inugalactolipid A (6), were
    isolated from the CH2Cl2 extract, identified by
    spectroscopic methods, and characterized as the topical antiinflammatory
    principles of this species. All these compounds proved to be effective against
    12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced ear edema in mice, although lacking
    activity against arachidonic acid-induced edema. In addition, compounds 5 and,
    markedly, 6 showed notable effects on a multiple-dose murine chronic dermatitis
    model. This is the first attempt to establish a rationale concerning the
    documented use of the plant on various skin diseases.
    (3), and 3-O-acetylpadmatin (4); a sesquiterpene lactone, inuviscolide (2); a
    sesquiterpene acid, ilicic acid (5); and a digalactosyl-diacylglycerol,

    PMID: 10217718 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE

    11)   Antimicrobial effects of aqueous plant extracts on the fungi Microsporum canis  and
    Trichophyton rubrum and on three bacterial species.

    Lett Appl Microbiol  1998 Jan;26(1):61-3

    Maoz M, Neeman I.  Department of Biotechnology, Braude Technology College, Carmiel, Israel.

    Abstract;
    Aqueous extracts of 10 plants were tested for their ability to inhibit
    Trichophyton rubrum and Microsporum canis, the aetiological agents of dermal
    fungal infections in humans. These extracts were also evaluated for their
    activity against some bacteria. Aqueous extracts from the leaves of Inula
    viscosa produced detectable antifungal activity against these dermatophytes.

    PMID: 9489036 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


    12)  Observations and research on an extract of Inula viscosa Ait
    [Article in Italian]
    Boll Soc Ital Biol Sper  1990 Sep;66(9):829-34  
    Lauro L, Rolih C.  Cattedra di Chimica, Facolta di Medicina e Chirurgia, Universita degli Studi di  Genova.

    Abstract;
    The folk medical tradition ascribes to Inula viscosa (a suffrutescent plant of
    Compositae widely spread along the Mediterranean basin) balsamic, antipyretic,
    antiphlogistic and antiseptic properties. Pharmacological test on rabbits, made
    hyperpyretic in laboratory, gave satisfactory antipyretic results. Gas
    chromatographical separation from a high-boiling fraction of seven azulenes, two
    of them identified as 1,4-dimethyl-azulene (about 50% and chamazulene (32%),
    confirmed the antiphlogistic action ascribed to the plant. By the present
    research (solvent extraction, thin layer chromatography and gas chromatography
    are described in detail) eucalyptol was identified in a fraction of essential
    oil obtained from fresh leaves of the plant. This datum supports the balsamic
    and antiseptic properties of Inula viscosa Ait.

    PMID: 2073383 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

    13)  Effects of hispidulin, a flavone isolated from Inula viscosa, on isolated
    guinea-pig smooth muscle.
    Gen Pharmacol  1988;19(4):559-63
    Abdalla S, Abu-Zarga M, Afifi F, Al-Khalil S, Sabri S.   Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of
    Science, University of Jordan,  Amman.

    Abstract;
    In small concentrations (10(-7)-3 X 10(-6) M), hispidulin caused
    concentration-dependent contraction of isolated guinea-pig ileum and only mild
    relaxation of guinea-pig tracheal rings. 2. Larger concentrations (up to 3 X
    10(-4) M) caused concentration-dependent relaxation of the ileum and the
    trachea. All the effects on the ileum and the trachea are reversible upon
    removal of the compound. 3. In concentrations from 10(-7) to 3 X 10(-4) M,
    hispidulin had no effect on the tone of the epinephrine-contracted rings of the
    guinea-pig main pulmonary artery. 4. Hispidulin caused a shift to the right of
    the acetylcholine concentration-effect curves on ileum and trachea and
    significantly inhibited the maximum contractions induced by acetylcholine. 5. In
    Ca2+-free, depolarizing solution, hispidulin caused both a shift to the right,
    and an inhibition of the maximum contractions, of the CaCl2 concentration-effect
    curves on ileum, trachea and pulmonary artery. 6. In Ca2+-free, EGTA-containing
    solution, hispidulin caused concentration-dependent inhibition of the
    contractions induced in the pulmonary artery by epinephrine and in the ileum by
    histamine. 7. These observations suggest that hispidulin may interfere with Ca2+
    binding to the Ca2+-receptor protein(s) in the smooth muscle cell and/or with
    the agonist-induced Ca2+-release from intracellular stores. Less likely,
    hispidulin may interfere with Ca2+ influx through smooth muscle cell membrane.

    PMID: 3410278 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

    14)        Antimicrobial activity of 20 plants used in folkloric medicine in the
    Palestinian area.
    J Ethnopharmacol  1998 Apr;60(3):265-71
    Ali-Shtayeh MS, Yaghmour RM, Faidi YR, Salem K, Al-Nuri MA.
    Department of Biological Sciences, An-Najah National University, Nablus,
    Palestinian Area.

    Abstract;
    Ethanolic and aqueous extracts of 20 Palestinian plant species used in folk
    medicine were investigated for their antimicrobial activities against five
    bacterial species (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella
    pneumoniae, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and one yeast (Candida
    albicans). The plants showed 90% of antimicrobial activity, with significant
    difference in activity between the different plants. The most antimicrobially
    active plants were Phagnalon rupestre and Micromeria nervosa, whereas, the least
    active plant was Ziziphus spina-christi. Only ten of the tested plant extracts
    were active against C. albicans, with the most active from M. nervosa and Inula
    viscosa and the least active from Ruscus aculeatus. Of all extracts the
    ethanolic extract of M. nervosa was the most active, whereas, the aqueous
    extract of Phagnalon rupestre was the most active of all aqueous extracts
    tested. The ethanolic extracts (70%) showed activity against both Gram positive
    and negative bacteria and 40% of these extracts showed anticandidal activity,
    whereas, 50% of the aqueous extracts showed antibacterial activity and 20% of
    these extracts showed anticandidal activity.

    PMID: 9613839 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


    15)  Plants used for the treatment of diabetes in Israel.
    J Ethnopharmacol  1987 Mar-Apr;19(2):145-51
    Yaniv Z, Dafni A, Friedman J, Palevitch D.

    Abstract;
    In an extensive ethnobotanical survey (130 informants) of the medicinal plants
    of Israel, 16 species were found to be used for hypoglycaemic treatments. Thelist includes Achillea
    fragrantissima (Forssk.) Sch.-Bip, Ammi visnaga (L.) Lam,
    Atriplex halimus L., Capparis spinosa L., Ceratonia siliqua L., Cleome
    droserifolia (Forssk.) Del., Eryngium creticum Lam., Inula viscosa (L.) Ait.,
    Matricaria aurea (Loefl.) Sch.-Bip, Origanum syriaca L., Paronychia argentea
    Lam, Prosopis farcta (Banks et Sol.) Macbride, Salvia fruticosa Mill.,
    Sarcopoterium spinosum (L.) Sp., and Teucrium polium L.; eight of them (marked
    with an asterisk) are first recorded here as used for this purpose.

    PMID: 3613607 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

    16) Effects of Inula viscosa leaf extracts on abortion and implantation in rats.
    J Ethnopharmacol  2001 Sep;77(1):117-21
    Al-Dissi NM, Salhab AS, Al-Hajj HA.  Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University
    of Jordan, Amman, Jordan.

    Abstract;
    The anti-implantation and mid-term abortifacient effects exhibited by administration of Inula viscosa leaf
    extracts, were studied in rats. The aqueous extract administered i.p. on day 1-6 of gestation, totally
    diminished fetal implantation and caused a significant (P<0.05) reduction in the number of corpora lutea
    and blood progesterone levels. Meanwhile, administration on day 13-15 of gestation exhibited mid-term
    abortion. Furthermore, petroleum ether and dichloromethane, but not methanol, extracts exhibited
    pronounced abortifacient effects. The results of this study are in agreement with the traditional reputation
    of this plant as abortifacient. Further, the plant possesses anti-implantational and luteolytic effects.

    PMID: 11483388 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

    17) Screening of selected plant extracts for in vitro inhibitory activity on human immunodeficiency
    virus.
    Bedoya LM, Palomino SS, Abad MJ, Bermejo P, Alcami J.    Departamento de Farmacologia, Facultad
    de Farmacia, Universidad Complutense, 28040 Madrid, Spain.

    As part of our screening of anti-AIDS agents from natural sources, extracts of 15 medicinal plants widely
    used in the folk medicines of North America and Europe were evaluated in vitro. Most of the extracts tested
    were relatively nontoxic to human lymphocytic MT-2 cells, but only the extracts of Hysopp officinalis and
    Dittrichia viscosa exhibited anti-HIV activity in an in vitro MTT assay. The 50% hydroalcohol extract of
    Hysopp officinalis and the aqueous extract of Dittrichia viscosa showed inhibitory effects against HIV-1
    induced infections in MT-2 cells at concentrations ranging from 50 to 100 microg/mL and 25 to 400
    microg/mL, respectively. Both extracts showed no appreciable cytotoxicity at these concentrations.

    Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Agree Food Hem 2002 May 22;50(11):3208-13             

    18) Evaluation of the wound healing effect of some Jordanian traditional medicinal plants formulated
    in Pluronic F127 using mice (Mus musculus)

    Enam A. Khalila, , , , Fatma U. Afifia and Maysa Al-Hussainib
    aFaculty of Pharmacy, University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan
    bFaculty of Medicine, University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan
    Received 6 March 2006;  revised 15 June 2006;  accepted 6 July 2006.  Available online 14 July 2006.

    Abstract

    The wound healing effect of the aqueous extracts of Inula viscosa, Ajuga chia, Rubia taenifolia and
    Parieteria diffusa, and the oil of Laurus nobilis, dispersed in water, were examined. The 10% (w/w)
    Pluronic F127 (PF127) was added to the applied preparations, in order to modify the aqueous extracts
    viscosity, and to stabilize the oil dispersion. A full thickness wound was made in the dorsal area of the
    mice. The wounds were treated with the different preparations with 12 h intervals for four times in two
    successive days. For 16 days, the wounds were visually observed, photographically documented and the
    wound area was measured. After day 16, the animals were sacrificed and the histology of the wound area
    was examined. The best wound healing activity was observed with the extract of Inula viscosa, followed by
    Parieteria diffusa, Laurus nobilis, Ajuga chia and the least active extract was that of Rubia taenifolia.


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